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Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space by Janna Levin

Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space
by Janna Levin
Knopf

“We see evidence of black holes destroying neighboring stars. We see evidence of super black holes in centers of galaxies… But we have never really seen a black hole, which only adds to the thrill of the prospect of hearing them.”

Astronauts returning on the space shuttle once told this former satellite designer and space program physicist: “You have no idea how much gravity is pulling down on all of us.” Home from the sheer joy of weightlessness in space, the dynamics of gravity were suddenly made real, pulling their shoulders and compressing their spines closer to Earth. It was a reminder of one of the universe’s illusive mysteries—gravity. We can measure and explain it, but we cannot see or hear it… yet. Physicist and writer Janna Levin takes us on the journey to detect, listen for, gravitational waves as the byproduct of a gigantic collision between black holes.

In simple terms, black holes form an incredibly dense mass. For scientists, this is where the fun begins. Since mass is an essential component of gravity, the extreme density of black holes will crush atoms and even bend light under its own weight. Yes, light has weight, and therefore one cannot really see a black hole, because light becomes trapped inside of it. Decades ago, the movie Black Hole depicted a spacecraft passing through a black hole. This is science-fantasy. Anything with mass in close proximity to a black hole will not pass through it. Instead, the atoms of the spacecraft and the crew inside will become so densely packed that the result will no longer be visible to the naked eye, not to mention eliminating the viability of the spacecraft and its occupants. A black hole generates pressure of astronomical proportions. In a world of unnecessary hyperbole, it’s literally appropriate to apply the description “astronomical proportions” to a black hole.

For the purposes of Levin’s book, as two of these monster black holes draw near, anomalies in gravity will create waves that ring through space, but by the time they reach the Earth, they will be so slight that they will not be felt or heard by even the knowing. So what device will be needed to detect this phenomenon? By the mid-twentieth century, planning for and construction of full scale gravitational wave listening devices began on several international fronts. The devices needed to be big. The largest, called the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), is run by Caltech and spans four square kilometers at two separate locations. Within its vacuum environment, LIGO waits for disturbances in a reflected laser beam as a means of sensing and measuring the dragon itself—gravity in the form of waves. It’s an enormous undertaking of scope, time, and funding.

With crisp storytelling, Levin tracks the creators of LIGO as it moves from thought to reality. Decades in the making, the success of this device is yet to be seen and, as some might say, hardly the point. It is another step in unlocking the mysteries of the universe. The geniuses of science will continue to tweak their experiments, conjure new frontiers to explore, and draw us closer to understanding. The field of scientists pursuing gravitational wave detection come from all corners of the world, and they are uplifted and hindered by their personalities. Humanity is the factor in the equation that’s impossible to measure. Beyond anticipated brilliance, we find professional paranoia, backbiting, and of course politics. However, the work proceeds with the relentless dedication of a monk, the ambition of a CEO, and at times the ruthlessness of a pirate.

Levin sketches the story with impressive color, while providing Polaroid-like narratives of the people and places along this scientific frontier. She is the type of science writer who can explain complex topics in understandable terms. In relating the beloved wizards and weirdos of the laboratories, she has brought the high-minded down to earth. That feat is as rare as hearing gravity, and it reveals the genuine process of discovery. History often documents invention as brilliant strokes of insight wrought to fruition, but Levin shows its plodding pace that spans decades, as well as its inevitable wrong turns into blind alleys and heartbreaking miscues that destroy careers. No doubt, her students at Barnard love to sit in on each lecture—scientists and laymen alike. If we had a device that measured passion, Levin would ring the meters and sound the alarms.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

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Killing the Rising Sun by Bill O’Reilly & Martin Dugard

Killing the Rising Sun: How America Vanquished World War II Japan
by Bill O’Reilly & Martin Dugard
Henry Holt

reviewed by Christopher Klim

“But some men don’t move—they can’t. Dead or mortally wounded, their bodies lie still, soaking the sand with blood.”

History is shaped by time and memory, allowing some facts to take prominence and others to fade away. As a result, Nazi Germany is remembered as the worst offender during World War II, while the U.S. decision to use the atomic bomb is given, by some factions, the moral equivalence of a brutal war crime. Typically, these misconceptions arise through ignorance, although sometimes it’s a deliberate rewriting of history for a political agenda. Regardless of the reason, news commentator Bill O’Reilly and coauthor Martin Dugard refresh the record in their latest installment of the “Killing” series.

To be clear, the atrocities of the Holocaust were a horrific stain on humanity, but at the same time, Imperial Japan conquered Asia in a brutal campaign that had no rival. Prisoners as well as civilians were tortured and killed without conscience. Women were pressed into prostitution. Nations were starved into submission. And yes, the Japanese conducted lethal human medical experiments within their infamous Unit 731.

The striking distinction about Japan was a core belief that they were superior to all others on the planet and that it would be ultimately shameful to surrender to the American “barbarians.” The indoctrination of this belief extended from the hubris of Japan’s 124th Emperor, Shōwa, commonly known as Hirohito. For Imperial Japan, negotiation of peace was not an option, and its people believed this wholeheartedly. Their soldiers proudly fought to the death. On the home front, every man, woman, and child was prepared to fight to the end in order to protect their emperor from shame.

Killing the Rising Sun is more than a discourse about the atomic bomb. It reveals its necessity by plotting the course of history during the Pacific campaign. Years after the devastation of Pearl Harbor and the U.S. retreat from the Philippines—not to mention a hard fought victory against Germany in Europe—the Americans under General MacArthur’s command were slowly regaining ground on the western front and creeping toward the ultimate showdown with Japan. As each island was recaptured, casualties were high. On both sides of the campaign, tens of thousands of soldiers died in what was becoming a regular repeat of the Normandy Invasion in blood and loss. Even though MacArthur longed for the dignity of combat and surrender, it became obvious that as many as a million or more soldiers and civilians were going to die before Japan would even consider ending their aggression. The extinguishing of Japan itself might even be necessary. The atomic bomb, as destructive as it was intended, became a viable solution for sparing lives in the long run.

Some historians theorize that Japan was only days from surrender when the first a-bomb was dropped, but this is wishful thinking. As O’Reilly and Dugard reveal in detail, Japan was dug in, and its people were willing to sacrifice to the last soul. They looked to Hirohito, high above Tokyo in the Imperial Palace, to harden their resolve. Even after the first atomic bomb struck Hiroshima, vaporizing thousands and debilitating even more citizens, the emperor refused to surrender. It’s important to remember that an American retreat would leave Asia under brutal control of Imperial Japan, much like eastern Europe was during Stalin’s reign. Therefore, a second, larger a-bomb descended upon the crucial industrial port of Nagasaki. Even off-target, it struck a devastating blow, which finally awakened Hirohito and his close advisors within their bunker beneath the palace. They soon surrendered, and the war was over. Again, make no mistake about it; the second atomic bomb was necessary. The emperor and his people by extension were that transfixed on war.

Another rumor that persists through time is that President Roosevelt lacked the will to use the atomic bomb, but nothing is further from the truth. Like most people, Roosevelt was tired of the bloodshed, but he died before the Manhattan Project produced a workable device. Shortly after Truman assumed power, one of the most secret scientific research projects fell into his lap. He had no idea that an a-bomb was being attempted, but now the power of the atom had been unleashed. Truman’s practicality soon won over, and he quickly moved to deploy the a-bomb, thereby changing the world forever. With either president at the helm, the a-bomb would have fallen on the nation of the rising sun. It was Japan’s rigidity and arrogance, just as much as American ingenuity and valor, that made this action inevitable.

While the American apologists will never stop twisting history to suit their ideology, Killing the Rising Sun is an honest and sober reiteration of the facts. It makes the case for dropping the atomic bomb without politicizing or deviating from the truth. With engaging prose and a gripping narrative, the authors humanize the Pacific conflict on both sides of the ocean by introducing individual tales from generals to foot soldiers, from scientists to civilians, from legends to the defeated. There is no mythology here. Certainly giant egos and even larger heroes traipse through each chapter, but these are real men struggling through Homeric moments in time. You’ll find yourself unable to put down the book until the end, and you’ll conclude that the decision to employ the a-bomb was more black and white than it appears through the muddled lens of time.

The book is an easy read, yet still contains the requisite footnotes and index to make it a suitable reference. It ends with a sentimental eulogy for O’Reilly’s father who was a veteran of the Pacific campaign. In addition, each living U.S. President was asked if using the a-bomb was the correct decision, and except for the sitting president, their thoughtful responses are included—and their conclusion is unanimous. As a work on the Pacific campaign, this book would make a better reference than many classroom texts. At the very least, it’s a must-tell story for a new generation.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

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The Elements of Power by David W. Abraham

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age
by David W. Abraham
Yale University Press

reviewed by Christopher Klim

“For most products, it is just not profitable to extract minor metals. Because of this, no plants in the United States, for example, recycle rare earth magnets.”

Natural resource strategist and consultant David S. Abraham unveils the state of the rare metals industry in this sweeping and fascinating narrative that says as much about the business and science of rare metals as it does about us, the people who consume them. To accomplish this task, Abraham spans the globe from South America through former soviet block nations and ultimately to Asia, giving us a feel for the industry from mine to market.

Abraham marks the dawn of the Rare Metal Age at the moment electronic circuitry took dominance in everyday life. This coincides with the rise of the millennials, who have not lived in a world without the need to recharge or replace batteries. Even the batteries themselves contain rare metals, but most people are ignorant of our rare metal dependency. For example, just a small amount niobium, makes a ton of steel many times stronger, and micro amounts of dysprosium, as well as other rare metals, help compose a cell phone’s vital parts. Rare metals aren’t just rare; they are irreplaceable. They are also pervasive, from energy-generating technologies, such as wind turbines and solar arrays, to personal electronics, such as televisions and computers. These valued elements have even found their way into the circuitry of simple items like electric toothbrushes and toasters. The importance of rare metals to modern military weaponry, from detection equipment to warplanes, is paramount to security and progress. We just can’t seem to get enough. For decades, blueprints in both technology companies and the Pentagon have awaited the discovery or extraction of rare metals in order to breathe life into their plans.

To make all of this possible, rare metals require challenging mining and extraction efforts. While mining has caused negative impact on certain regions, sometimes devastatingly so, extraction involves a series of sophisticated mechanical and chemical applications, which are often accomplished in less than ideal circumstances. Abraham speaks of metallurgists hunkered inside crude smelting facilities, applying acids like witch doctors and exposing themselves and the environment to toxic byproducts. In some nations, mining rare metal ores from the earth is a lucrative sideline for its people. Regulation and control of this fast-growing industry has been challenging and often impossible.

Even though rare metals are important, they are not typically measured in the tonnage, and, therefore, major commodity traders are not typically interested in the business. This opens the door to private dealers and ultimately smugglers. And we haven’t even mentioned the political implications of controlling certain elements. While rare metals know no borders, they run up against politics nonetheless. China, who is the largest and sometimes exclusive producer of certain rare earth metals, manipulates the supply chain to whatever end it feels necessary, both economically and geopolitically.

In his complete tour of rare earth metals, Abraham tells us everything we wanted to know, but didn’t even know we needed to ask. He shares stories of rare metal history and the characters who populate its bloodlines, taking us behind the scenes to reveal the mines, extraction facilities, and metals brokers and buyers—not to mention world’s appetite for rare metal end products. The book itself is well researched and referenced, but does not overwhelm the average reader with the science and methodology. He makes the subject matter highly accessible and engaging. The book concludes with a wake-up call to the modern world. We must accept the fact that rare metals are finite and environmentally challenging to recover, but have become an essential part of modern life and a path toward green liviing. Therefore, we need to better regulate the process and distribution, as well as discover ways to preserve and reclaim the tonnage of rare metals we dispose in landfills each year.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

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Armageddon by Dick Morris & Eileen McGann

Armageddon: How Trump Can Beat Hillary
by Dick Morris & Eileen McGann
Humanix Books

reviewed by Christopher Klim

“She is accustomed to getting her talking points from Bill or some other key advisor and going out there and fighting for them.”

While some books are requested for review, others arrive on their own. Armageddon is one of the latter, and it sat in our in-box for months before the growing election season piqued our curiosity. Inside, writer Eileen McGann speaks for Dick Morris who is a well-known political commentator and former Clinton advisor. He knew the Clintons well, until his unceremonious dismissal after being discovered that he let a prostitute overhear a phone conversation with the President (i.e. Bill Clinton). It suffices to say that no one in this book is an angel. This is not a debate about Clinton in the classical sense, and there is no rebuttal from the Clinton point of view.

The book begins by outlining twelve reasons why Mrs. Clinton should not be president, ranging from her legendary temper to her right-up-to-the-chalk-line behavior with the law. Most of this information has circulated during the election year. He paints the picture of a candidate who is virtually unable to address controversy in a straight-line manner and therefore must constantly reformulate her truths in order to survive.

Beyond the general deceits that we anticipate from any politician—only the frequency and severity varies—Morris points out two troubling factors. First, since leaving her husband’s oval office, Clinton has become much more hawkish on war. During her period as Secretary of State, the Middle East destabilized, an American embassy was attacked under suspicious circumstances, and a general mood of international chaos has risen with more encouragement than mitigation. Second, Clinton is not charismatic like her husband. Nor is she a creative thinker. This brings up perhaps the only new insight in the book. According to Morris, Clinton relies heavily upon idea men who Morris calls gurus. Morris identifies himself as one such guru from 1995 to 1996. He claims that she becomes transfixed by her gurus, following their advice word for word, instead of incorporating it into her own ideas like Kennedy or Reagan. This behavior has even led at times to campaign staff rebellions, but more importantly, it poses the question: Who will be Clinton’s guru as President? In other words, who will be influencing her direction of the country?

In 1787 as Dr. James McHenry of Maryland exited the last day of the Constitutional Convention, he stopped one of America’s true originals and freethinkers, Dr. Benjamin Franklin, to pose a simple question, “Well, Doctor, what have we got—a Republic or a Monarchy?” Franklin replied, “A Republic, if you can keep it.” Today our government behaves more like a bananas republic than that which is stewarded by its people. This transformation did not happen overnight, and we are all to blame for tolerating its creeping decline and the men and women who populate its halls. Morris and McGann could have posed the most important question: Which candidate can halt or even reverse our slippery road to perdition? And while we are at that task, if we are of the mind, it would be almost impossible not to raise the level of civil discourse given its current residence in the gutter.

No candidate is perfect or the best fit for the job, while some are better suited for the times. A case could easily be made that Clinton would deliver more of the expected in government, while Trump is a product of the times, the wildcard that occasionally appears in history. Not every wildcard is successful. In fact most are not. They are more influential than ultimate leaders. Ironically, Bill Clinton was one such wildcard who surprisingly won the presidency in 1992. Today, Morris presents the case that Hillary Clinton would further current causes, while deepening existing flaws in government, such as its propensity for questionable military action and the reckless course of the national debt. Morris is not necessarily interested in Trump. He wants to defeat Mrs. Clinton. One also has to temper his commentary with the fact that he has been forced to watch the Clintons from the outside for two decades.

Armageddon borders on the sensational, and its veering into Chelsea Clinton’s dealings should have been avoided. It would’ve been effective to see Trump vs. Clinton, point for point, making it the easiest for people to see the contrast and decide on their own. Still, the book does not claim to be a fair and balanced presentation—a phrase employed often by Morris’ former employers at Fox News. The book is of two parts: first, Morris’ personal assessment of Hillary Clinton, which should be sprinkled liberally with salt, and second, his strategy for exposing the weaknesses in her campaign rhetoric. Mostly, it’s a passionate plea to take a look at the woman behind the campaign slogans.

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Three Things to Consider When Purchasing a Book Review

With hundreds of thousands of books published annually, marketing your book can be a daunting task. One of your choices will inevitably come down to whether or not to purchase a book review. Here are three major factors to consider:

Professional Writing – A number of aspects go into a professionally written review. First, is the staff populated by professionals? This seems obvious, but many review sites are writer mills, allowing virtually anyone who is interested to pen a review. Other review sites barely compose a staff. These are mom and pop shops that tend to hang an Internet shingle for business, purport authority, and write reviews on their own. These are not professionals at work, no matter how slick or jazzy their websites appear. Look at the publication’s staff page, if it even has one. Are there more than a handful of writers? Be suspicious of a publication that refuses to reveal its reviewers’ names. The byline credit is a basic courtesy given to a professional freelancer, and virtually none would work without obtaining a byline for their portfolio. Second, is the review publication consistent across the masthead? A professional review publication has guidelines and an editor who keeps its staff and articles in line. Each review should have consistency, generating both authority and confidence in the publication. Third, does the reviewer address both the book content and the writing? Any sixth-grader can write a book summary, but a professional will critique a book through informed commentary that also addresses the writing itself. If the review narratives appear summary-driven, conversational, or employ a first-person tense, these are not professional writers at work.

Authentic Readership – Are there dedicated subscribers, visitors, and followers of the review publication? A professional review means nothing if no one reads the publication. Weekly, monthly, and annual visitors are metrics that can be easily measured (and provided to the author). Does the publication have a subscriber base? If not (or if it’s insignificant), the publication cannot assert relevance for its work. And if the publication merely dumps its reviews on an on-line aggregator (that next to no one reads), it will not be of any service to the author. Next, validate the publication’s social media following with one of the free analytical tools, such as TwitterAudit for Twitter followers and LikeAnalyzer for Facebook likes. Here’s a dirty little secret about the industry: Many review publications are purchasing Twitter and Facebook followers to create the illusion of having a large audience, when in fact it is only a fraction of what it appears to be. This is useless to the author, as well as unethical on the part of the publication. See our article on this subject: Fake Social Media: More Common Than You Think.

Cost-Effectiveness – Most authors’ budgets are limited, and spending hundreds of dollars for a book review is not acceptable. Often these reviews are no better than that which you can obtain from a free book review site like The Midwest Book Review, which ranges from good, semi-professional coverage to amateur reviews. A professional book review can be obtained for less than one hundred dollars, but be certain to closely examine the publication’s writing and readership in advance.

Warning: If the publication or its editors are up-selling manuscript editing services or the like, you have to ask: What business are they really in? Are they a review publication, or are they a money-milking operation? The work of an editor and the work of a reviewer should never cross paths. An editor ensures quality, and a reviewer measures it. When the reviewer and editor become one entity, integrity flies out the window. (Hmmm… let us review the wonderful manuscript we just helped you edit… hmmm… not very trustworthy.)

Deciding to purchase a book review can be an effective tool when marketing a book. It can provide pull-quotes for marketing and stock materials for a media kit and press releases. It can even seed eventual sales. Remember, a book review is only the beginning of the conversation about the book. Read this article on creating a feedback loop to help kick-start your marketing efforts.

The US Review of Books is a professional review publication sent to more than 15,000 monthly subscribers, including thousands of additional followers on GoodReads, Facebook, and Twitter. The US Review is staffed by professionals and is highly praised by authors.

Seeing-Shain

Seeing the Real You at Last: Life and Love on the Road with Bob Dylan

Seeing the Real You at Last: Life and Love on the Road with Bob Dylan
by Britta Lee Shain
Jawbone Press

reviewed by Christopher Klim

“How could he embarrass his children this way? How could he embarrass himself?”

Shain’s tale of her brief affair with Bob Dylan takes us from her college days, through early trials and successes, and the struggle to find love and relevance as an artist. It eventually peaks at her star-crossed intersection with Bob Dylan. Along the way, we get glimpses of a Dylan at work and play, as well as the infamous number of masks that guard him from the public. When Shain ultimately unveils him, we discover the portrait of an atypical artist trapped inside an ordinary drunk and womanizer.

The travelogue aspects of this book really shine, especially during a mid-80s tour through Europe when Shain and Dylan finally hook-up. Dylan’s album releases form signposts throughout the story, where the author draws life parallels if only at times a loose association. Even prior to meeting Dylan, Shain makes personal connections to his lyrics and interjects them throughout the book. You never have to have met Dylan to graft to his lyrics. His art is truly brilliant in that way.

The book takes a while to get started. It is intent on mapping every nuance of the heart, and its narrative arc runs long, delivering tedious personal details and a fair amount of name-dropping. It takes two hundred pages for Shain and Dylan to consummate their relationship. Within that run-up, there are on balance only moderate appearances by and little unique insight to the famous songwriter. However, there is a larger tale of life, which builds within the context of the entire story. For in tragedy, this story becomes real.

Shain grew up the child of alcoholic/mentally ill parents who may or may not have been drinking to self-medicate. The legacy of an alcoholic’s child is that of an adult searcher who desires to fill the missing spaces of the past. Often the result, or at least one stop in the journey, is to find another drinker in the hope of resolving childhood pain. Dylan fills this role with gusto for Shain. He is charming, smart, and willing to focus his considerable attention on her, and he can drink a lake of booze and remain on his feet. While Shain is a searcher, Dylan is a hunter, perhaps using women to improvise love inside the bubble of fame. The past will not be repaired for her at this stop. When Dylan’s wife learns of their affair, it becomes a threat to Dylan’s comfort level, and Shain is banned from his inner circle, debasing their genuine physical and emotional intimacy. She is heartbroken and must become realistic about her expectations and the aftermath of what she’s done.

This is a tale that has been scripted by the privileged throughout the centuries, and in another time, Shain might have been cast on the roadside to die. An alcoholic does not consider his sins, unless sober when his conscience can become so weighty that he quickly returns to the drink to erase the guilt. Dylan, for all his unique and transcending artistic abilities, lives a cliché life. Polished up to glittering effect by celebrity, he appears to be surrounded by adoring enablers who allow him to outrun the consequences of his actions for as long as he can. He gets what he wants and moves on, and Shain ends up being just another of the musician’s dalliances—many of whom will never be known. It would have been interesting if Shain had unearthed Dylan’s motivation for living this way, but that’s a different nut to crack. If his latter music is any indication, he has since given up the bottle and at the very least reinvigorated his art if not his life.

Shain will undoubtedly receive a backlash from Dylan fans for this betrayal of the secretive songwriter’s confidence, and she will be cast as a groupie with gossip. An honest assessment says, that she was a casual friend who leapt starry-eyed into his self-destructive path. Furthermore, she is an unpublished novelist, and her book with Dylan’s name attached will likely form her best attempt at literary relevance. However, it’s enough that Shain has unwittingly given voice to the many women Dylan has left in his wake, more specifically his lesser known conquests who apparently include many backup singers and female acquaintances. Shain does not lay blame, and there is nary a trace of bitterness. She takes responsibility for her part in the affair and reflects inwardly upon the damage to herself, his wife, and his children. She admits that her ideal image of Dylan ran headlong into a very human Dylan, and while she’ll forever be charmed by him, she has pulled herself together and moved along her search to better places.

Dylan could write a song about their meeting, but he will likely never glance at this book. Instead, his behavior is repeated by thousands of others each day across the globe. Like many iconic figures, Dylan has always taken advantage of the fact that what he does in his personal life just doesn’t matter to the public. We only want the songs, while we fantasize about the songwriter. Shain reminds us that our notion of the songwriter is just that—a complete fantasy.

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Fake Social Media: More Common Than You Think

Since we last discussed the issue of fake social media followings, some of our competitors have gotten even worse, falling into the 50% to 90% fake follower and friend range on Twitter and Facebook. On the surface, this seems harmless. Unfortunately they often sell marketing outreach as part of their services, and if the majority of their social media following is either purchased or inactive, they may be perpetrating a fraud, which is both unethical and illegal. And if a company is willing to promote a fake social media base, how else might they be deceiving their clients?

See our earlier article on why you should never use a fake social media following.

Fake social media followings are primarily composed of dummy accounts in non-English-speaking nations. These will do absolutely nothing to promote your business. Both Twitter and Facebook are well aware of the problem and attempt to crack down on the practice, but they simply cannot keep up with the pace of people who either sell or buy social media followings. Even the highest ranking people in the nation employ some level of fake social media.

Here are easy ways to spot a useless social media following:

Analyze the Account – A number of free tools are available, such a TwitterAudit for Twitter accounts and LikeAnalyzer for Facebook pages, that will provide measurements of fake social media followers. There are many other free options on the Internet. Try a few. You will be astounded by the results produced by some of your favorite companies, celebrities, and service providers.

Unbalanced Following-to-Follower Ratio – Twitter is built on reciprocity, which means that most of the people who follow you are followed back in return by you. The same goes for “likes” on Facebook, although this is much more difficult to track. Since Twitter is superior for marketing (i.e. Facebook is superior for customer interaction), check the following-to-follower ratio of a prospective business. A healthy Twitter account has about an 80% or better following-to-follower ratio. This means that the account is following almost as many people who follow the account. If you see many followers and few accounts followed in return, look closer at what this person or account is doing.

Few Number of Impressions or Reaches – Twitter activity is often gauged by the number of impressions a post garners, while Facebook is measured by the number of people reached. Often this data is internal to the account holder, but there are a number of aftermarket metrics to determine these values. Another way to gauge social media viability is through the number of likes and retweets on Twitter and the number of likes and shares on Facebook, although these speak more to furthering outreach than relevance to their initial social media base.

The questionable practice of employing a fake social media following falls into the “snake oil” category, recalling the days when charlatans circled the country with magic elixirs that claimed to cure all ills. The Internet is proving to be more like the Wild West than we ever knew. Hiring a fake social media following can be more than a waste of time. It can be dangerous to your limited marketing budget, and it puts into question everything the account holder does as a company.

See why the US Review of Books is different than many other review publications.