Surrounded by Others and Yet So Alone: A Lawyer’s Case Stories of Love, Loneliness, and Litigation

by J. W. Freiberg
Philia Books

book review by Kat Kennedy

“Loneliness, I realized, is the sensation of inadequate connections to others, just as hunger is the sensation of inadequate nourishment and thirst is the sensation of inadequate hydration.”

Consisting of five stories taken from the author’s work as a lawyer, this book offers a study in the causes of subjective chronic loneliness in those whose connections with other people “fail to provide the security, nurturing, and soothing care that others enjoy from their healthy connective networks.” In looking over his many years of case studies, the author narrows down the types of misconnections experienced by the chronically lonely into five categories: “Tenuous Connections,” in which the connections between clients are uncertain or unreliable; “One-Way Connections”—for example, unrequited love; “Fraudulent Connections,” wherein one’s relationship is based on deception and manipulation; “Obstructed Connections,” where one is prevented from being emotionally available; and “Dangerous Connections,” in which the relationship can cause devastating emotional and physical harm. For each of these misconnections, Freiberg includes a case study from one of his past clients to illustrate how people who are in relationships with others may still suffer loneliness because of the failure of their relationships to offer healthy connections.

The five case studies presented in this work are exceptional tales of the human experience. Some are heart-wrenching as they deal with innocent children who find themselves at the mercy of the adults in their lives. Others deal with the bizarre turns that life can take and the human capacity to see what one wants to see even to the point of denying an unmistakable truth. Each fascinating story is told through the voice of a master storyteller, which renders the text fluid and engaging while instilling its subjects with a humanity which elevates them far beyond a case study in a folder. One feels for each of these people as they navigate the legal system, gaining respect for the author and his role in helping them. There is much to learn about humanity, as well as the nuances of loneliness in the author’s work.

Freiberg has a unique position from which to address the issue of loneliness through the lens of litigation. He began his career as a social psychologist after obtaining his PhD at UCLA and spending a decade as a professor at Boston University. After receiving his J.D. at Harvard, he embarked on his long career as a lawyer. Having experience in both fields gives him a unique perspective on the modern phenomenon of loneliness and how it contributed to particular law cases on which he worked. This is the third of Freiberg’s books on the subject. The award-winning first, Four Seasons of Loneliness (2016), deals with four case studies from his law practice, one from each season of life. The second, Growing Up Lonely (2018), is a collection of papers, for which he served as editor, from the 2018 Symposium on Childhood Loneliness held at the Kennedy Center in Boston, MA. Each has received accolades from professionals in child psychology, with Four Seasons of Loneliness garnering the 2017 Independent Publishers Book Awards Gold Prize.

It is impossible to read these case studies without being profoundly impacted by the people involved. What Freiberg has done is to take the legal notes on each case and put a very human face on each one, all the while revealing his own deeply felt concern for his clients and their circumstances. This is a riveting read that will forever change the way one looks at chronic loneliness and the connections between humans.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

Start Finishing: How to Go from Idea to Done

by Charlie Gilkey
Sounds True
book review by Yousra Medhkour

“You have to lose yourself in the project only to find you’re a different person on the other side, for as we create, we’re creating ourselves.”

When striving toward achievement with any sort of project or goal, most are all too familiar with getting sidetracked or lost along the way. Whether it be dwindling motivation, a lack of time to focus on the things that matter to you because of family and work obligations, or procrastination, Gilkey provides a detailed plan of getting the gears into motion and finishing the projects you’ve started—more specifically what he calls your “best work.” This concept of best work is a powerful one because it highlights that the projects you want to do are the ones that will fill you with meaning and purpose in life. Your best work isn’t just a task to check off on a list once complete, but a means for you to thrive.

To explain what best work is and the habits you need to break or make for it, Gilkey divides his book into three parts that include a total of ten chapters. The importance of the book’s structure is that it allows the reader to dive into any section of their choosing, depending on what they want to learn. In other words, if a person skips a few chapters or starts in the second or third part, one is still bound to gain knowledge that will help a person better strive towards finishing their best work.

One of the aspects of this book that makes it engaging and helpful is that it’s not just a list of steps to follow. Rather than providing lists to follow robotically, Gilkey shares practical advice that takes into account that the reader is human. He says, “Doing your best work will thus require you to constantly be on the verge of failing,” because if it wasn’t your best work, you wouldn’t be putting your capabilities to the test. It wouldn’t be easy. There will be downfalls, and you will—more often than not—be your worst enemy or obstacle that gets in the way of accomplishing your best work.

In fact, Part One of this book is not just a guide to getting around external barriers but also a motivational discussion that focuses on the internal—how to convince yourself that you are capable of more than you often give yourself credit for. Following the whys of our woes and how to get past the obstacle of ourselves, Part Two is where Gilkey begins to layout methods to getting your best work out into the world. Though he provides an influx of advice, what strings it all together is his detailed look at both goal-making and organization. Without these two factors, reaching the finish line is extremely difficult. He describes how simple things such as adding verbs to your to-do list, splitting a task into smaller chunks to make it less daunting, and more can make an incredible difference. Gilkey even explains how environment, sound, and smell can have an astonishing impact on getting work done. All of these factors sizzle down to organization, whether through schedules (as discussed in Part Three), your surroundings, the people you choose to be your supporters, etc. Essentially, Gilkey accomplishes showing rather than telling as he uses his experience, both as a leader in the Army and through his research and interaction with clients.

Moreover, even the aesthetic of the book’s layout portrays more than its face value. Every page is crisp and neatly designed, largely thanks to the plethora of white space both around and between pages. It makes the book look inviting rather than intimidating, emphasizes the sense of organization that Gilkey says is key to success in any project, and makes it easier to read because of the lack of visual distractions that some other books might have. Gilkey’s conversational writing style also makes it easy to read as it carries his points across without a stutter.

The 2020 Eric Hoffer Book Award Grand Prize Winner

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

Born Crazy

by Bonnie Sanford Collins Bostrom
The Canelo Project
book review by Kate Robinson

“The journey requires of us the ability to leap into darkness, play tag with time and break our own hearts.”

Bostrom’s childhood in the 1940s on a remote ranch in northeastern New Mexico gives her a unique grasp of the rhythms of the natural world, and the simple life oriented toward family and community that shaped her requires a great deal of stamina, resolve, and patience. Bostrom reveals much about the matriarchs of both sides of her family as well as paying homage to the patriarchs, offering a window into the ongoing manifestation of the divine feminine that arises in all cultures. The title seems to nod not only to the oddities and imperfections of Bostrom’s life but to the crazy wisdom that is inherent in the very act of living. She humorously points out in one essay that sperm are both male and female, a simple but revelatory fact not acknowledged in what many see as the patriarchal slant of American culture.

The down-to-earth prose keeps the settings and relationships of the author’s life real and accessible, and the tightly woven entries are just the right length, imbued with the right level of artful thoughtfulness to keep readers interested in turning pages. The essays alone would not be enough to convey the messages that Bostrom sought to share, and these are greatly enhanced and even eclipsed by her finely-tuned, evocative poems and her colorful, cosmically influenced artwork. Bostrom is a poet, philosopher, and visionary artist at heart. It is the verse and visuals of this book that illumine the universal quest for enlightenment. The sublime truth of her mind’s true nature arose through the mundane but fascinating discipline of ranch life and the many hills and valleys of adulthood.

Bostrom recognizes the historical relevance of her childhood, coming of age, and journeys through stages of her adult life commencing in the colorful beatnik era of the late fifties and the psychedelic and conflicted sixties. She allows us to examine her relationships and welcomes our companionship on her spiritual journey. She invites us to freely explore the spiritual path that we all create in one form or another because we are consciousness embedded in material, finite bodies. Bostrom reminds us with nature-based imagery in word and pigment that the spiritual element of life inspires artistic and creative inquiry, even in the simplest or most tormented of lives. This creativity is like a lotus rising from the mud of impermanent physicality to the beauty of the infinite:

How down to the bone our fantasies lie
Like ancient lichen on rotting wood
The green dreams grow.

When we rode our rockets to the moon
Were we actually looking for heaven?
That place, myth tells us,
Where we reunite with family, friends
And winged beings that need no rockets to fly.

This could be just another creatively crafted but ordinary memoir, except that the volume reads like the intimate journal of a true artisan drinking deeply from the well of universal human desire for spiritual equanimity and transformation: “We write for others so they can share what is really a very personal missive to ourselves . . . hunger, pain, grief and suffering bind us. Beauty, joy, compassion and love are even stronger bonds.” Bostrom’s exquisite sharing of her life and thoughts is a gift to be savored.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

HomoAmerican – The Secret Society

by Michael Dane
Amazon.com Services

book review by Dylan Ward

“This Secret Society, of which I am a member, is no more visible to me than I am to them.”

With the rise of noteworthy novels and biographies from LGBTQ writers such as Paul Lisicky, Noelle Stevenson, Brandon Taylor, and Ocean Vuong, Dane joins the ranks with his hefty, detailed memoir. The reader is invited into Dane’s private, life-long search for identity. With intimate detail, the author reveals a well-traveled, storied life where somewhere along the way he “stopped being a real character,” only recognizing himself in reflections. He examines the painful moments of childhood and his chaotic passage into adulthood. We follow him as he roams among outcasts, immersing himself into an invisible society that is known only to a few. Dane probes the duplexity of visibility and invisibility, like a dancer on stage in front of audiences and an object of desire, yet continuously feeling lonely and invisible. For Dane, he moves through a world of night. He wanders in shadows and “darkness, of passion and pleasure.”

Reflecting upon his upbringing, Dane considers the complex relationships throughout his life, beginning with his parents. At just six years old, he begins to understand that he is different. Growing up in the “spare, gray, cold house” in San Francisco, he fears his father’s “simmering madness” and the unruly gangs that terrorize the streets and his school. His mother’s presence offers little comfort as she too is trapped, unable to fully protect Dane with five children and “a crazy husband.” From this, the author develops conceptions of being “invisible,” of which the only solution is “isolation or amputation of the soul.” His parents’ divorce fractures his family life. He barely escapes his father’s abuse before turning to rebellion and embracing a burgeoning sexuality in junior high. At sixteen in the 1970s, he and America are on the cusp of change. Dane begins to seek out that secret society, which becomes the overarching theme of his narrative. It is dance that opens doors for him, and ballet serves as an outlet, a protective “safe haven” that provides a “magical structure.”

This newfound passion eventually leads him to the ballet schools of New York City. He is twenty but pretends to be younger. He is also vulnerable and unsure of himself, alone in a city of glamour and cruelty. That vulnerability, coupled with physical beauty and innocence, attracts the attention of both men and women in ways good and bad. He meets the half Puerto Rican, half Italian Gerard whose “sense of magic about him” brings new clarity to Dane. Their relationship is complicated as Gerard gives Dane the comfort he seeks while also enticing him into a world of anonymous sex. As Dane explores his needs and wants, he eventually gives in to the “compulsion and desire” while “trapped between mirrors in this world.”

There is a raw, lyric power to Dane’s prose that is seductive and renders the reader unto a “language of the heart.” This is most evident at the start of his memoir, and it returns again with his time in Tehran, dancing for the Shah of Iran in a “mysterious and wild terrain” amid the “snowcapped mountains in the distance.” There, he learns carnal truths and acknowledges masculinity, femininity, and the blurred lines of identity in between.

Dane writes largely about identity while he explores other themes with these pages, too, such as discrimination, sexuality, and freedom. Through Dane, we are witness to significant historical events that shape our political and social landscape. He carefully braids these details into the narrative that forms his coming-of-age tale. There is much to appreciate in Dane’s book as he reflects upon a diverse life. Readers might even find themselves considering their own identities in the myriad ways the author tries to make sense of his. The author’s story is a mix of harrowing moments, happy moments, and sad moments. Dane comes to terms with all that happens to make him the person he is today. His memoir is an unforgettable, absorbing read.

A Critical Investigation into Precognitive Dreams: Dreamscaping Without My Timekeeper

by Paul Kiritsis
Cambridge Scholars Publishing

book review by Jonah Meyer

“Quite simply, while passive observation of past and future events may, under certain circumstances, be possible, direct participation in them is impossible.”

In this detailed and wide-ranging book, the author is primarily concerned with the phenomenon of precognitive dreams—that is, the study of dreams which contain a premonition or subconscious inkling of something which has yet to be but does, in fact, take place in the future. The future, as it were, may be less than 24 hours later, days or weeks later, and may even range into years. The closeness in resemblance between the event, object, person, etc. in the dream and its real-life waking counterpart can vary widely, from a vague symbolic resemblance to more extreme cases of actual equal identification. Additionally, sometimes dreams of precognition can be on a personal level (which is the more common type, such as one dreaming a relative will pass away and then precisely that happening in real life), or of a collective nature (such as precognitive dreams involving natural or man-made disasters, airplane crashes, and the like).

Intertwined with the author’s engaging analysis and exploration of the primary subject matter at hand, he positions the phenomena—and why we generally, in the Western world are reticent to accept such a concept as precognition via dreaming—in the larger context of a comprehensive analysis of scientific thought and general worldview assumptions over the millennia (including especially our accepted understanding of time and space), focusing primarily on the history and tendencies of science and Western thought over the past few centuries. Necessarily, various intellectual disciplines and scientific pursuits are examined, along with many key players in the various fields, in positing the author’s argument that there are large cultural forces at work which have over time led us, collectively, to a place where any such mention of the questionable realms of telepathy, extra-sensory perception, precognitive dreaming and the like are at once dismissed by society at large as paranormal gobbledygook and as downright blasphemy by mainstream intellectual heads of thought in the “accepted” sciences.

Perhaps the most enjoyable section of the book appears a bit less than halfway through, where Kiritsis shares with the reader detailed results and commentary on an experimental study he conducted on the subject of precognition in dreaming. Fifteen subjects (five males, ten females) were provided with participation forms gathering personal information and detailing a simple set of steps for their transcription of dreams alongside the identification of any self-perceived associated waking-life experiences. Participants were asked to self-manage their own trials for four or five consecutive days and returned the data to the author via email. “Subsequently,” writes Kiritsis, “the correlational quality of each dream-associative waking experience set was determined using a unique categorization system with precise diagnostic valuations for very powerful correlations (‘excellent’), powerful correlations (‘good’) and some correlation (‘average’).” The complete report was then subjected to statistical analysis. For each entry, summaries of the dreams were described by the subjects, followed by the corresponding real-life experience(s). Based on certain relevant criteria, the resemblance (if any) between the dreams and characteristics of events unfolding in reality for the dreamer were examined, and each example placed into one of the three above-mentioned corresponding categories.

Kiritsis happily notes that there was indeed some consistency across the 51 precognitive dream fragments collected in his 2014 study, wherein the primary and most potent extrapolation one can glean is that “precognition isn’t the prerogative or exclusive dominion and property right of mystics and seers. In fact, it is enabled by our neurocognitive hardware and woven into our dream tapestry—an ordinary feature of human consciousness.” In other words, despite the naysayers and skeptics, the author maintains such dreaming is actually happening, to one degree or another, all the time for much of the population. We simply often fail to make the connections because we are not on the lookout for them.

While the marketplace is saturated with plenty of books on dreaming, dream interpretation, and interpretation of symbols and artifacts that are present in dreams, Kiritsis’ book is unique in that the focus is specifically on the study between events, objects, people, conversations, etc. that people have reported having dreamt about, with a later manifestation of the same phenomena in waking, day-to-day life. Kiritsis has dedicated his research to such precognition dreaming, and the resulting book, without doubt, provides a unique, well-researched academic study of this most interesting of windows into the human psyche.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

The Book Killers: Weak Point of View

The Book Killers: Amateur Covers

In this ongoing series, Christopher Klim, author and senior editor of the US Review of Books, takes a look at common errors that undermine books.

In book selling basics, the author attracts the reader and the first page sells the book, but nothing allows a potential reader to disregard a book like an unprofessional cover. The US Review encounters poor book covers on a regular basis: drab, confusing, amateurish designs or some combination of the three. So let’s take a look at book cover basics.

1) The main title should be visible from twenty feet away. This is accomplished through a combination of font, size, and color contrast. A title that is viewable from a distance in a bookstore is as easily read when reduced in size for on-line sales.

2) Title visibility applies to the spine as well. For most of its commercial shelf life, a book will be placed spine out. The title should be as large and as high contrast as possible.

3) Make the subtitle informative. While I’m not a fan of employing subtitles, except for nonfiction, book series, or very short main titles, the subtitle should be essential to the book’s message. Overall, the title and subtitle combination should not be overlong. The best titles are brief—something a typical person can remember and tell another.

4) Don’t forget the back matter. The back of the book is where business takes place. Most retailers won’t sell your book without a standard bar code in the lower right corner or a clearly visible price and genre designation.

5) Keep the book summary to 100 words or less. It’s true. A book can be explained in one short sentence. The New York Times Bestseller List bestseller list has been doing this for decades. Avoid putting a book on the back of a book. (FYI, the author bio is not a back cover essential. While it must be included in the book, it’s easily located on either the last page, inside flap, or back cover.)

6) Gather authoritative endorsements. People want to read quotes regarding the book, but not from the author, publisher, or author’s friends. Build authority for the book with commentary from recognizable experts (i.e. known authors, celebrities, or subject-related practitioners), as well as feedback from professional book review publications.

7) Employ thematic artwork. Artwork that definitively relates to the content describes the book in advance. There is a reason why romances feature a rapturous women and science fiction titles present glossy hi-tech images on their covers. The correct audience is subconsciously drawn to it. Furthermore, the color palette used evokes different emotions. Horror titles make good use of black and red. Young adult romances paint the cover in virginal white and pink. Also, men and women are attracted to different colors for different genres. The psychology of color is an advanced science, which leads us to the final element of cover design.

8) Hire a professional. Most authors are not visual artists, but a professional book designer or even a talented artist should have an innate or trained sense of image and color. Book designers can be contacted through the Internet. At the very least, struggling artists can be found locally. Check their portfolios to see if their work matches the sensibilities of the prospective book. Fees will range from nominal to pricey, but a good cover is worth it. Photoshop’ed self-made covers constructed on the cheap (and often like kindergarten artwork) are easier to spot than a title from twenty feet away, and they will debase the entire book.

The much-used aphorism “You can’t judge a book by its cover” is philosophically correct, but in reality, more people do this than don’t. A great cover sells the book as well as the author sells the book. When considering a cover design, visit a bookstore for trends and ideas within the genre. Taking the time, as well as hiring a professional, gives a book that likely took months if not years to write the jacket and marketing potential it deserves.

Next in The Book Killers series: Inferior Word Choice

Previously in The Book Killers series: Poor Structure

Broadway General Manager: Demystifying The Most Important And Least Understood Role In Show Business

by Peter Bogyo

Allworth Press

book review by Dylan Ward

…general managers oversee all the financial and business concerns of a show. Even more, they are the linchpin of the entire production, upon which every aspect of the show must rely.”

A lover of theater since the age of five, Bogyo, a veteran Broadway general manager, is no stranger to show business. Having worked with notable heavyweights such as Cicely Tyson, Stephen Sondheim, Carol Burnett, and Richard Dreyfuss, Bogyo holds an esteemed reputation in the industry. Now he graciously shares his expertise with an honest, inside look into a critical but misunderstood role. His objective here is to answer the question of what precisely a general manager does in an unvarnished book he wishes he had when first starting out. He explores the myriad ways in which a general manager “interacts with people at every level of the production.” Beyond that, Bogyo examines with precise detail the inner workings of theater and production management and the complexities these entail. He literally walks us step-by-step through the day-to-day functions and requirements for developing, organizing, and administrating a major stage production from birth to end.

The author’s intended purpose here is not for this to be a memoir but rather a reference or guide with firsthand knowledge of the behind-the-scenes operations and management of show business. His book becomes instantly invaluable, a gift bestowed with his mastery and comprehension on the subject. It is a book written for the theater student, the aspiring theater manager, the future producer, or even a new producer just beginning. Of course, it is also a book for the theater lover who simply enjoys reading about insider secrets of stage productions.

Bogyo begins by recounting briefly his roots and the surprisingly simple way he got his start in management as a company manager. For Bogyo, company managers are “the hardest working and the most underappreciated [sic] people in theater.” He then informs us of the necessary personality traits and key interests one should possess to be successful as a general manager. He then segues into the nuts and bolts of how large-scale productions are pieced together and run, which fills the bulk of his book. He plainly lays out complex breakdowns of operating budgets and salaries, along with the sometimes staggering numbers of production costs. Just reading this makes one appreciate the work and stress that goes into producing these shows. Above all, he highlights the demands that come with a career in theater management and the importance of a trusting “marriage” between producer and general manager in an industry “built heavily on relationships and reputation.”

Several chapters alone are devoted to specific examples and breakdowns of contracts for various roles in the production, such as actor, director, designer, and of course, general manager. Where necessary, Bogyo infuses cursory overviews of historical context and facts to aid us in understanding present-day productions. While fans see and relish the glamor of stage performances, it is the unseen business behind the curtain that Bogyo brings to light, one that must be coordinated like a well-oiled machine. He also candidly points out that a general manager requires “extensive knowledge” and must “possesses a breadth of experience” to ensure prosperity in this role and give audiences a winning show.

While Bogyo’s narrative is revealing, frank, and altogether informative with excellent tips, it never feels weighty or dry. Nothing is wasted here, and everything is carefully selected to craft this book. One should pay especially close attention to the note sections throughout, where Bogyo gets more personal about his experiences. They are fascinating and worth reading and emerge as the gems of his book. These real-life cases fall into a range of funny, serious, or baffling. One such example is a confusing email correspondence with a producer that was misconstrued by a particular subject line. Another recounts the unfortunate situation of a major star unable to perform due to a bad back. Then he reveals the practical use of certain contraceptives with wireless microphones. These and others demonstrate Bogyo’s capacity and knowledge gained that helped shape his talents, skills, and intuitions to oversee multi-million dollar productions at every turn.

Included throughout is a wealth of information as well as charts, instructions, and terminology. In addition, a glossary is helpfully supplied at the book’s end. With each page, Bogyo’s fondness and upmost respect for the profession become clear. Though the narrative is accessible and digestible, it doesn’t quite have the personal touch one finds in Michael Reidel’s Razzle Dazzle. But Bogyo’s book does share a candidness and depth similar to William Goldman’s The Season coupled with the straightforward practicalities of Michael Shurtleff’s Audition. Bogyo manages to condense years of experience into a reliable, singular book. It is essential reading for anyone to learn and understand the ins and outs of “the life of a show.” Though it will primarily appeal to specific audiences, Bogyo’s empirical and fascinating look at life in the theater can be admired by anyone.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

That Famous Fig Leaf: Uncovering the Holiness of Our Bodies

by Chad W. Thompson

Cascade Books

book review by Nicole Yurcaba

The body was not designed to be enjoyed apart from the spirit that resides inside.”

This work explores the history and psychology of the body and its connection to the mind and, more importantly, the spirit. By examining church leaders’ stances, psychological and sociological studies, biblical studies, and a large swath of literature, this book researches society and religion’s seemingly imposed dichotomy between the body and the spirit, and it poses why no dichotomy should exist whatsoever. By exploring how members of Western society predominantly shape their attitudes towards their bodies during childhood and adolescence, this book examines how an oversexed society loses respect for itself and its members through body objectification and how through an understanding of where these ideas develop and the disconnect that often occurs between body image, body acceptance, and faith, believers in any faith can accept their bodies and their sexuality as inseparable from their spirit.

This book offers insights for those struggling with tough questions. With its focus on modern-day questions and attitudes towards teaching children about their bodies, about emphasizing to teenagers the importance of accepting their bodies as theirs and God’s, and about carrying positive body attitudes throughout one’s life as one grows in his or her faith, this book becomes a must-read for anyone interested in the history and the research behind many Western attitudes towards nudity, sex, and the body. Supported with a variety of both religious and secular research, this book provides fresh insights about age-old questions and struggles. It is a must-read for those who prefer a more academic approach to faith and spirituality, but it is also recommended for anyone seeking to provide insights to young adults and teenagers about coping with body issues, sexuality, and faith.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

The Book Killers: Weak Point of View

The Book Killers: Bad Grammar

In this ongoing series, Christopher Klim, author and senior editor of the US Review of Books, takes a look at common errors that undermine books.

The first mistake that sells out a new writer is bad grammar. Misspelled and misconjugated words, incomplete and malformed sentences, and confusing syntax are the hallmarks of poor editing. The book could be a great concept, but will be considered a fumbling error. For example, a common mistake is to label the foreword section as “Forward” in the heading. An even bigger mistake is to not work with an editor.

Technically speaking, grammar is a set of rules that governs the composition of words and phrases in a language, but, linguistically speaking, proper grammar and its related syntax allow the reader to understand the words on the page. Many emerging writers bend grammar to their own cadence of thought. This is fine for draft work, but it’s a rookie mistake to expect a reader to decode the writer’s thought process. The whole point of reading is to reproduce the writer’s information, imagery, and energy inside the reader’s mind with some semblance of the original thought. The shared rules of grammar and style facilitate this for the widest possible audience. When the reader is forced to decipher the language—most often demonstrated by having to recycle over words and phrases—the reader will likely close the book and move on. A good editor brings another pair of eyes that will identify these deadly mistakes.

Fiction writers are given some elbowroom to stretch the language, but this is best done, and most powerfully so, as an exception to the rule. Nonfiction writers have less leeway. Not only must they write to strict grammar conventions, they must write to the style of the publication, which is a discussion for another time. The US Review of Books, like most publishers of books and articles, uses The Chicago Manual of Style as its standard. The AP Stylebook is used exclusively for article writing, although it is mostly a subset of Chicago. Professional writers have both and use them often. (Tip: The previous edition of both style guides can be purchased at a fraction of the current edition’s cost.) Don’t rely on your editor to catch every detail. The cleaner the manuscript, the more an editor can focus on bigger issues like structure, tone, and overall content.

Self-awareness is a bridge a writer crosses on the way to success. At some point, a writer recognizes his or her flaws and strengths without the prompting of a mentor. Successful writers revise in cycles, ending the process with a close examination of the actual words and phrases, as well as focusing on habitual errors. We are the sum of our vices. It seems that when we conquer one bad habit in our prose, another emerges to take its place. This can change from year to year, book to book, and even article to article. While writing, build a checklist for editing, and end revisions with a review of this list.

With so many books being published each year (i.e. approximately one million annually in the U.S. alone), it’s difficult to bring attention to a single book. Bad grammar is the great crippler at the starting gate for many self-published and first-time authors. Remember to learn the rules of grammar, have a reference guide at the ready, be wary of bad habits, work with an experienced editor, and give your manuscript one last review.

Next in The Book Killers series: Poor Structure

Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man

by Christopher Hitchens

Grove Press New York

book review by Christopher Klim

“To begin with, a summary of Paine’s astonishing life and career is to commence with a sense of wonder that he was ever able to emerge at all.”

Now that radical elements are attempting to erase history, Thomas Paine might laugh in his grave. As the singular most important figure in the birth of modern democracy, the promoter of human liberty, and the author of an American bestseller only eclipsed by the Bible, Paine should have a monument in Washington, DC at least as big as the “founding fathers,” but he has been mostly forgotten—and that occurred before he even left the planet.

Born the son and later apprentice of a corset maker, Paine stumbled into London after escaping death at sea during the outside of The Seven Years War between England and France. There his Quaker roots crossed paths with the freethinking denizens of the city. He fumbled through professions and a marriage, while expanding in radical thought. In 1774, he appeared in Philadelphia alone with a modest letter of recommendation and a recent acquaintance with Benjamin Franklin. Two years later, he published a half million copies of Common Sense—a pamphlet that challenged British authority and monarchy in plain and ingenious language. Often referred to as the greatest American bestseller, Common Sense was either read by or to read to nearly every colonists and became the catalyst that altered history.

Later, with The Rights of Man and The Age of Reason, Paine influenced generations forward and still does today. This latter work, which challenged the papacy, rejected the fantastical elements of belief in God, and even criticized George Washington, caused a backlash among his peers and isolated him from society. After a stint abroad fanning the flames of The French Revolution, the father of two national freedom movements spent time in prison, narrowly escaped execution, and returned to America in anonymity to die nearly a pauper in the New York. Like a true zealot, Paine had alienated himself from even his staunchest supporters in the end.

With his usual wit, economy of words, and deft deployment of facts, Hitchens paints a wonderful and honest portrait of Paine centering around The Rights of Man—a brilliant discourse on the nature of humanity and that rights are inherent to man and not bestowed by any earthly authority. It is existential and timeless as it is practical and current. Hitchens never minces words or arguments, and it’s clear that he is passionate about his subject matter. If Paine was a singular gift to humanity, then Hitchens’ handling is reverent and as needed now as much as ever.

RECOMMENDED